The book heavy metal toxicity is describe some important dangerous heavy metals out of all the heavy metals. In this authors describe mercury toxicity, arsenic toxicity, aluminum toxicity,cobalt toxicity etc. In this book authors want to learn human being about the metal toxicity because in each and every day we affected by metal toxicity via food, drink, inhalation. This book is also a boon for students and researchers who engaged with metal toxicity.
Impact of heavy metals on growth and metabolism of crop plants
The consequences of urbanization and industrialization, heavy metal contamination in the environment is a worldwide problem. Some heavy metals are essential macro-nutrients (trace metals) for normal plant growth. Their deficiency or toxicity poses adverse effects on growth and metabolism of plants. The elevated levels of these heavy metals contaminate the environment and cause great environmental problems. Plants exposed to excess concentration of a heavy metal, accumulated it in their tissues often to the toxic levels, causing a reduction in growth, biomass, yield-productivity and metabolism. Hence, keeping this view the study of impact of heavy metals on growth and metabolism of crop plants should be taken with goal to achieve high growth and yield of crop plants improving living of standard.
Effect of Heavy Metals on Haematological and Testicular Functions
The heightened concern for reduction of environmental pollution that has been occurring over the past decades has stimulated active continuing research and literature on the toxicity of heavy metals. While, the toxic effects of these substances is a widespread concern in the modern industrial context. Man has succeeded in poisoning himself with the two most polluted heavy metals (lead and cadmium) repeatedly throughout recorded history. Since heavy metals are probably the oldest toxins known to humans so this book aimed to evaluate the hazard of lead and cadmium on some constituents of blood and the testicular functions. Also, aimed to focus on the beneficial role of antioxidants (vitamin C and/or zinc) in retardation and regression of heavy metals problems.
The present study attempts to understand to what extent biomass application can be useful to treat industrial effluent so as to isolate heavy metals. The researcher has carried out various laboratory experiments to identify suitable methods. The present report is documentable of the work discussion on previous literature, methodology and the relevance. Heavy metals are present in nature and industrial wastewater. Due to their mobility in natural water ecosystems and toxicity, the presence of heavy metals in surface water and ground water has become a major inorganic contamination problem. Discharge and treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals are important issues in environmental protection. Various industries produce and discharge wastes containing different heavy metals into the environment. Biosorption is a property of certain types of microbial biomass to concentrate heavy metals from aqueous solution. This is new research to use of blue green and green algae, which are growing on automobile industrial effluent naturally and we can to use them for removal of the heavy metals.
Wide spread of pollutants present in the environment, has a profound deleterious effect on the interacellular homeostasis and may affect the gene expression. Among the most common hazards found in today's environment are the toxic metals and metalloids. Several metals have been found to produce acute and chronic tissue injury in humans and animals. It has been suggested that, one class of such toxic metals is the heavy metals as cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), and Mercury (Hg). Exposure to one or more heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Cu, Ag, Zn, and Hg) had been found to elevate metallothionein concentration. The latter, was regarded as an inducible protein, and plays a key role in the homeostasis of essential metals such as Zn and Cu, and in the detoxification of some heavy metals as Cd, Hg, and Ag. When the toxic metals bound to metallothionein, they rendered inactive, and can not exert their deleterious effects on the sites of cell survival. Thus, metallothionein can help efficiently as a biochemical parameter in the diagnostic investigations for the toxicity resulted from heavy metals exposure, particularly in the industrial and polluted areas.
Heavy Metals Removal From Wastewater By Biosorption
It is a well known fact that presence of heavy metal ions in wastewater reduces the performance of activated sludge systems. Removal of heavy metals from wastewater before biological treatment is a viable approach used to improve the biological treatment performance. One of the methods used for removal of heavy metals from wastewater is biosorption. Mathematical model was developed to describe the heavy metal ions inhibition in an activated sludge unit. Box-Behnken experimental design method was used to investigate heavy metal ions, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and toxicity removal performance of the activated sludge unit under different operating conditions.
Chemical and Microbiological Hazards Associated with Fresh Water Fish
Contamination of fish and aquatic environment is one of the most important contemporary problems that preoccupied many scientists over recent years. Fish is considered as one of the most foods susceptible to contamination from various sources either from natural environment or during hunting, transferring and handling. Therefore fish play an important role in transport of pollutants whether chemical pollutants such as heavy metals or microbial contaminants such as pathogenic bacteria which could cause serious risk to the health of consumers. This book provides valuable scientific information’s about contamination of fish and aquatic environment with heavy metals and microbiological pollutants. Also, this book provides information’s about sources of heavy metals, uptake, transport and accumulation of heavy metals in fish, toxicity of heavy metals, levels of heavy metals in fish as well as effect of technological methods (blanching, frying, roasting, baking and soaking in different solutions) on the reduction of some heavy metal levels. This book is useful to professionals in environmental pollution field also for workers in the field of food technology especially fish processing.
Heavy Metal Toxicity and their Remediation by Soil Microbes
Among various contaminants, heavy metals, discharged from metal processing industries are known to have adverse effects on microbial diversity, soil fertility and yields of various crops. The excessive accumulation of these heavy metals can modify essential protein structure or replace an essential element causing chlorosis, growth impairment, browning of roots, and inactivation of photosystems. Also the ingestion of contaminated food or drinking water can expose humans and animals to toxic levels of the heavy metals. Recently, the use of biological materials for effective remediation of heavy metals, often termed bioremediation, from metal contaminated sites has emerged as a potential alternative to conventional treatment techniques. Bioremediation is a process that uses microorganisms or their enzymes to detoxify these contaminants and keep the environment free from these contaminants. Microorganisms and plants are usually used for the removal of these heavy metals. Several microbes such as Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Acinetiobacter sp. and Arthobacter sp. are reported to detoxify heavy metals.
Heavy metals are widespread pollutants of great concern as they are non degradable and thus persistent. These metals are used in various industries from which effluents are consequently discharged into the environment. Introduction of metals in various forms into the environment can produce numerous modifications of microbial communities and affect their activities. In order to survive in heavy-metal polluted environments, many micro-organisms have developed means of resistance to toxic metal ions.At higher concentrations, however, heavy-metal ions form unspecific complex compounds in the cell, which leads to toxic effects. Some heavy-metal cations, e.g. Hg2+, Cd2+and Ag+, form strong toxic complexes, which makes them too dangerous for any physiological function. Microbiological processes can either solubilize metals, thereby increasing their bioavailability and potential toxicity, or immobilize them, and thereby reduce the bioavailability of metals. These biotransformations are important components of biogeochemical cycles of metals.
Weathering of Black Shales and its Impacts on Freshwater Ecosystems
For many years, the presence of heavy metals in water and sediments as well as their impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic organisms has been attributed to anthropogenic inputs. In this book, Dr. G.M. Ogendi presents results showing that elevated heavy metals levels may be associated with natural weathering processes and thereby impacting negatively on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. He describes the black shale system with its enriched metal composition, its weathering and impacts on the adjacent aquatic ecosystems. The levels of heavy metals in water, sediments and rock samples were measured in the laboratory. To demonstrate the likely impacts of these heavy metals on organisms, water-flea, fathead minnow, and midge larvae were exposed to the water and sediment samples in whole effluent toxicity bio-assays as described in the USEPA protocols. It was established that the levels of the selected heavy metals in water and sediments in some study sites exceeded the USEPA guideline values. Further, it was found that some metals adversely affected the test organisms. Thus, naturally-derived metals need to be considered in aquatic and terrestrial pollution and impact studies.
ShorttitlThe aim of this study was to assess all conditions for heavy metals sources in the surrounding environment , Egypt in particular and factors leading to that pollution due to the highly developed industrial activities .I n that area .Cu, Cr, Cd, ,Zn ,and U were used as reference examples in ground water , drinking water supplies and in soil samples. Both Natural and synthetic sources and toxicity of commonly encountered heavy metals were discussed . The heavy metals bio remediation scales will be used to establish the environmental guide levels for various heavy metals. Reviewed the different ways to try to control different pollutants as oil spills ,and radioactive isotopes . Proposed future prospect to the heavy metals and harmful elements removal by applying biosorption, phytoremediation, mycoremediation , phytoextraxtion and hyperaccumulator; bioremediation scales ,factors affecting it , Rhizofiltration, Phytostabilization and other known traditional methods referring to Burullus lake.Sadat city towards a valuable environment and future consideration provision to reduce the problem.
Detection of Human Metallothionein 1-a Gene Mutations Using PCR-RFLP
This Book is the product of more than than two years research and innovation in Genetics and Molecular biology. It was revolutionary among the Metallothionein researches in literature and heavy metal toxicity in human genetics make up it emphasis the fundamental works in most Metallothionen is as a group of proteins serve as heavy metals detoxification proteins. In preparing this work we inspect Elemental Mercury Toxicity to assimilate the best ideas from education research.